Alkenes can carry out addition reactions with protonic acids: CH2=CH2+HX→CH3CH2X.
1. Different olefins support regularity
When the alkene is a different alkene (the two carbons of the hydrocarbon group are replaced differently), the proton of the acid is mainly added to the carbon with more peroxide, and the negative cation is added to the oxygen atom with less peroxide. It is the Markovnikov work experience standard, also known as the regularity of different olefins.
2. The structure of alkenes is harmful to the addition reaction
The specificity of olefin addition reaction: (CH3)2C=CH2>CH3CH=CH2>CH2=CH2.
3. The harm of protonic acid and alkalinity
The stronger the acid-base, the faster the addition reaction, and the specificity of the addition reaction between hydrogen halide and alkene: HI>HBr>HCl.
Acids are weak acids such as H2O and ROH, and strong bases must be used as metal catalysts.
The alkene and hydrochloric acid are supported to obtain hydrogen sulfate, and the latter hydrolysis reaction obtains alcohol, which is an indirect way to generate alcohol:
Alkenes react with solutions of halogen bulbs to form beta-halohydrins:
Halogen bulbs, protonic acids, hypohalous acids, etc. are all electrophilic reagents, and the addition reaction of alkenes is an electrophilic addition reaction.
The reaction can be carried out because the electronic device of the olefin π bond is easy to flow, and it is biased to one carbon side of the hydrocarbon group under the harm of the natural environment (experimental reagent).
If it is a different olefin like pe, because of the power supply system of the alkyl group, the π-bond electronic devices are not evenly distributed. There is a small amount of positive charge on the carbon close to the hydroxyl group, and a small amount of negative charge on the carbon far away from the hydroxyl group. In the presence of an external electrostatic field, the separation of positive and negative charges is further aggravated, making it easy for the electrophile to react with the alkene.
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